Agai – respectful address to elder male persons

Akhakallit. with a white beard, the elder of a tribe, an elderly respectable person

Alyp – very strong man, giant

Apai – polite form of address to not very young women

Argamak – wonderful horse

Arshin – old use Rus. measure of length = 28 inches

Athabas (athabalar) – the Bashkorts, indigenous population, who were granted special rights (votchina) to land ownership by tsarist government after joining Bashkortostan to Russia

Atabak – military leader of a high rank

Athan – Moslem morning prayer

Azhdaha – fabulous monstrous snake of the epic legends and fairy tales of the Middle and Central East Aul – village

Babai – old man

Bai – rich man

Baigambar – prophet

Barantach – robber

Barlasy – warriors

Barumta – cattle–stealing

Bathkak – tax–collector

Batyr – legendary hero of Bashkort people, a man of great strength and valour

Bishbarmak – Bashkort national dish, soup with meat, pasta, onions

Biy (bei) – tribal and military leader in ancient Bashkort and other Turkic people's communities

Bogatyr – hero in Russian folklore, a strong man

BoyarRus. dignitary, a rich landowner

Canton – old use administrative territorial subdivision in former Bashkortostan

Car – snow Dav (div) – monster

Dombra – pizzicato musical instrument

GospodinRus. polite address to male persons

Habantui – feast, held after finishing field works in spring

Ishan – leader and tutor of a Moslem commu¬nity of Derwish and Sufi trends

Ishtak (Istyak, Ishtek) – earlier Kazakhs called Bashkorts so

Kalym – alms

Kamsa – lash

Karymta – blood feud

Khadji – Moslem who went on a pilgrimage to

Mecca and Medina Khan – the highest aristocratic rank in ancient Bashkort and other Turkic people's communities

Kibitka – transportable dwelling of nomadic people (Kirghizes, Kalmyks, etc.), made of trellis covered by thick felt mats

Kibla – the direction to where the black stone of prophet Mohammed's tomb is situated, i, e, the south

Knyaz Rus. high aristocratic title, prince

Korot – sour milk

Kot – soul, vigour, well–being

Koubyz – stringed musical instrument

Koumiss – fermented liquor made from mare's milk

Kubair (kobayir) – poetic epic genre of Bashkort folklore, a praising song

Kulak – in tsarist Russia rich peasant landowner, in the USSR disfranchised peasant landowner

Kurai – national musical instrument resembling a reed–pipe or a flute

Kurash – Bashkort national wrestling contest

Kynyirakethnogr. a kind of leather boots, soft soled and canvas lopped

Maithan – place where festivities are held Muezzin – man who proclaims the hours of prayers from the minaret of a mosque

Mullah – Moslem learned in theology and sacred law

Myrtha (murza) – high aristocratic rank of Tatar, Bashkort peoples

Namath – Moslem essential pray performed five times a day

Nauruz – New Year holiday of Turkic peoples

Noyon – mighty feudal lord

Rayes – chairman

Sagaidak – arbalest, cross–bow

Sakman – coat

Sakrym – ~1 kilometre

Saryk – leather boot

Sasan – folk poet–improviser, creator

Shaitan – devil

Shakert – student of a Moslem religious school–madrasah

Shariat – Islamic law based on the Koran

Shazhara – books of records of family lives, chronicles

Shurale – spirit of woods which can tickle a man to death

StarostaRus. village elder

Sotnikold use Rus. leader of a hundred of surbodinates, a rank of an officer in Cossack troops

Tamga – sign, token or symbol of a tribe (clan)

Tathtar – towel–like female head–dress

Tarkhan – rich landowner

TsarRus. king of Russia; Bashk.Rus batshahy (padishah)

TsarinaRus. queen of Russia; Bashk. Aby batshahy

Tyuba – subdivision of a kin

Tulpar (tolpar)– a winged horse

Turhuk – sack made of leather for keeping and carrying koumiss

UkazeRus, order issued by highest authorities of Russia (President or governmental and parliamentary bodies)

Uthaman – elder, patriarch, respectable man

Yasak (yahak) – tribute paid in natural products (furs, honey, etc.)

Yaylau (yailau) – pasture where summer houses were placed, families of semi–nomadic peoples lived there

Yeget – brave young man, skilful horseman

Yiyin – folk meeting, feast, holiday

Yurta (tirma) – cone–shaped dwelling of some nomadic peoples made of poles covered by doer skin or thick felt

Yoth–bashi – leader of a group of one hundred warriors